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Category Archives: Lizards

Discovering a new species for Bangkok

On the very first day I went herping in Bangkok, I found an unusual-looking gecko:

Sri Lankan House Gecko (Hemidactylus parvimaculatus)

It didn’t look like a Spiny-tailed House Gecko or a Flat-tailed House Gecko or a Stump-toed Gecko or any of the other species that I knew lived in the city. I showed the picture to a friend who is an expert on Bangkok’s herps, and he guessed that it might be a Spotted House Gecko, a species that is usually only found down in southern Thailand. But we weren’t sure.

Just a week or two later, I was searching again close to my home and I found more of the unusual geckos:

Sri Lankan House Gecko Hemidactylus parvimaculatus adult

Now I was sure – they were NOT spotted house geckos. I went to the Field Herp Forum, an internet site where people post their herping finds, and asked them what it might be. Several herpers thought it might be related to a Brooke’s Gecko, a species-group that is found over much of Africa and Asia, but not in Thailand. I looked at the pictures and realized they were on the right track. So I contacted Michael Cota at the Bangkok Museum of Natural History. He agreed that I had a new find for the city, and asked me to collect some samples. These girls were the lucky two:

Sri Lankan House Gecko Hemidactylus parvimaculatus adults and type specimens for description from Bangkok

Mr. Cota examined the lizards in the laboratory and determined that they were Sri Lankan House Geckos (Hemidactylus parvimaculatus), a species usually found on the island of Sri Lanka. They likely had gotten here accidentally by hiding in shipping containers of goods sent from Sri Lanka to Bangkok. By this time I’d found a couple dozen of the geckos near Oh Nut Soi 2, in Lumpani Park, and close to Sukhumwit Road Soi 60 – look on a map, and you can see the Khlong Toei docks are right in the middle of those three locations. In fact, I later found them close to Khlong Toei itself (as well as a couple new nearby locations), making it very likely that the docks were the original location and they spread out from there. I have yet to find these geckos anywhere more than 10 kilometers from the docks, despite extensive searching.

With the information we had, Mr. Cota and I were able to publish a scientific finding in the Herp Review journal, reporting the first ever discovery of Sri Lankan House Geckos in Thailand. The citation name is Cota, M. & J. Hakim. Hemidactylus parvimaculatus (Sri Lankan House Gecko). Geographical Distribution. Herpetological Review 42(2): 241.

Over time I realized that I nearly always found the geckos under pieces of concrete, usually on bare dirt. With five native species of geckos taking up most of the other space, it’s the only habitat niche that the Sri Lankan House Geckos have been able to make for themselves in Bangkok. It’s also a habitat niche that no one other than me was looking in – which is why no one else had found them, even though they’d probably been in Bangkok for a number of years. This shows how herping in even the most mundane of locales can lead to an exciting new discovery. Always keep your eyes open and photograph anything new that you see – and with a little luck, you might make your own notable discovery.

 
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Posted by on January 17, 2014 in Geckos, Lizards

 

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Agamids outside of Bangkok

Several other Agamid species can be found in Thailand outside of Bangkok. They include:

Rough-bellied Mountain Dragon

Rough-bellied Mountain Dragon Acanthosaura lepidogaster

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indo-Chinese Water Dragon
Indo-Chinese Water Dragon Physignathus cocincinus

 
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Posted by on February 4, 2013 in Agamas, Lizards

 

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Monitors outside of Bangkok

Several other Monitor species can be found in Thailand outside of Bangkok. They include:

Bengal Monitor
Common Indian Monitor Varanus bengalensis India juvenile

 
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Posted by on January 6, 2013 in Lizards, Monitors

 

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Skinks outside of Bangkok

Several other Skink species can be found in Thailand outside of Bangkok. They include:

Reeve’s Smooth Skink
Reeves's Smooth Skink Scincella reevesii

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Streamside Skink
Streamside Skink 8-18-2011 Khao Yai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berdmore’s Water Skink
Berdmore's Water Skink Tropidophorus berdmore

 
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Posted by on January 6, 2013 in Lizards, Skinks

 

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Geckos outside of Bangkok

Several other Gecko species can be found in Thailand outside of Bangkok. They include:

Cardamon Slender-toed Gecko
Cardamon Slender-toed Gecko Cyrtodactylus intermedius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flying Gecko
Flying Gecko Ptychozoon lionotum

 
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Posted by on January 3, 2013 in Geckos, Lizards

 

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Water Monitor

Varanus salvator

Water Monitor Varanus salvator

Water Monitor in Lumpani

Water Monitor Varanus salvator

Water Monitor exiting water in Chatuchak

Water Monitor Varanus salvator

Extremely heavy monitor over 2.5 meters long in Phra Phadaeng

Water Monitor Varanus salvator

Water Monitor in water in Lumpani

Water Monitor Varanus salvator swimming

Water Monitor swimming in Lumpani

Water Monitor Varanus salvator

Water Monitor approximately 8 meters high in tree in Phra Khanong

Water Monitor Varanus salvator head shot

Head shot of Water Monitor in Lumpani

Water Monitor Varanus salvator eating fish

Same Water Monitor eating fish in Lumpani

Water Monitor Varanus salvator hunting

Water Monitor hunting snails in Lumpani

Water Monitor Varanus salvator

Water Monitor hunting along shoreline in Lumpani

Water Monitor Varanus salvator juvenile

Juvenile Water Monitor in Suan Luang

Water Monitor Varanus salvator juvenile

Juvenile Water Monitor in Phra Phadaeng

Water Monitor Varanus salvator mating

Water Monitors mating in Lumpani

English name: Water Monitor
Scientific name: Varanus salvator
Thai name: Hea

Description: To 3.21 meters long. Snout to base of tail is up to 1.1 meters. A massive, intimidating lizard, one of the largest in the world. The heaviest individuals can weigh over 50 kilograms. Body is grey to black, often with varying spots and chain patterns of yellow-to-tan that fade with age. Neck is long and head is long and somewhat flattened. Has a notably large forked tongue that it often extends to sense its environment. Tail is higher than it is wide and very strong. Underbelly is somewhat lighter than rest of body.

Similar Species: No other lizard in our area has the enormous size or distinct appearance of the Water Monitor.

Habitat: As their name implies, Water Monitors are almost always found near water, including rivers, lakes, swamps, canals, and beaches. As long as water is available they can be seen in a wide variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, mangrove swamps, islands, and agricultural areas. They are most common in coastal regions and become increasingly rare the further inland you go. They are very good swimmers and are known to swim long distances in the ocean, which can lead to the colonization of new islands. They are also good climbers and are often seen resting in trees at heights up to 10 meters. The Water Monitor has adapted well to urban environments and can often be seen in Bangkok’s parks, canals, and garbage dumps.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Are an adaptable and prolific predator, helping to control insect, snail, shellfish, crab, fish, frog, snake, turtle, bird, and rodent populations. They are well-known for eating eggs, hunting for the nests of birds, turtles, and crocodiles. Monitors help keep the city clean by feeding on trash and dead meat, especially dead fish and other water animals that wash ashore. Young monitors can provide food for large snakes.

Danger to humans: Water Monitors do not prey upon humans, preferring to eat much smaller animals. However, a Water Monitor that is grabbed or threatened by a human may use its teeth, claws, or tail to defend itself, and all three could inflict significant injury. If you are bitten by a water monitor, it is important to clean the wound and apply antibiotic ointment immediately, as rotting flesh in the monitor’s mouth may lead to inflection. You should seek medical attention in the case of any serious bite in order to prevent infection. It is possible that very serious bites from the largest monitors may lead to fatalities.

Conservation status and threats: Is a widespread and common species in Thailand. Though they are sometimes killed for sport or out of fear, they adapt surprisingly well to urban environments for such a large lizard. They are a protected species in Thailand.

In other countries, Water Monitors face heavy hunting pressure for their meat and skins, and the combination of overhunting and habitat destruction has led to their extermination in some places. They are considered to be nearly extinct in China, and their populations have seen serious declines in India, Bangladesh, and parts of Indonesia.

Interesting facts: The Water Monitor is an inauspicious lizard in Thailand. Its Thai name is an insult referring to an evil thing. Superstitions state that it indicates bad luck, and some Thais will even avoid saying its name. The negative connotations associated with monitors may have to do with their eating of dead animals, their feeding upon household chickens and eggs, or their frightening appearance.

References:
Wikipedia: Water Monitor
Ecology Asia: Malayan Water Monitor
Mampam Conservation: Water Monitor
Animal Diversity Web: Varanus salvator
Nam Kading Research & Training Center: Water Monitor
Hong Kong University: Varanus salvator
IUCN Red List: Varanus salvator
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
Michael Cota, personal communication.
A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia
The Lizards of Thailand

 
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Posted by on September 20, 2011 in Lizards, Monitors

 

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Oriental Garden Lizard

Calotes versicolor

Oriental Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor

Oriental Garden Lizard found in Phra Khanong

Changeable Lizard Calotes versicolor

Oriental Garden Lizard in Suan Luang showing especially gray coloration

Oriental Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor

Oriental Garden Lizard in Chiang Rai Province showing black throat patch

Changeable Lizard Calotes versicolor

Oriental Garden Lizard in Ko Samet

Oriental Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor

Male Oriental Garden Lizard in Phra Khanong showing breeding colors

Changeable Lizard Calotes versicolor

Male Oriental Garden Lizard in Rangsit showing breeding colors

Oriental Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor

Close-up of male Oriental Garden Lizard in Ramkhamhaeng biting finger

Changeable Lizard Calotes versicolor head shot

Head shot of Oriental Garden Lizard in Rangsit

Oriental Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor head shot

Head shot of very large adult male Oriental Garden Lizard in Payao Province

Changeable Lizard Calotes versicolor

Male Oriental Garden Lizard in Prawet showing aggressive behavior in breeding season

Oriental Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor juvenile

Juvenile Oriental Garden Lizard in Phra Khanong

Changeable Lizard Calotes versicolor

Head shot of juvenile Oriental Garden Lizard in Suan Luang

Oriental Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor sleeping

Oriental Garden Lizard sleeping at night in Bangkapi

English name: Oriental Garden Lizard (aka “Changeable Lizard”)
Scientific name: Calotes versicolor
Thai name: Ging-ga Hua Daeng or Ging-ga Rua

Description: To 37 cm long. Snout to base of tail is up to 10 cm. This spiny lizard differs from most lizards in Bangkok in having a robust body that is higher than it is wide. Color is highly variable, ranging from yellow-tan to olive to brown to grey, sometimes with dark markings along the back. Occasional young individuals will also have light markings or a light line running down the back. In breeding season males can show deep red or rust coloration on the front of the body, while females may become yellow. Breeding males also develop a black blotch on the throat. Skin is rough and spiny, unlike the smooth skinks or the soft geckos. Head is large. Adults have a crest that rises up from behind the eyes to the back. Small spines can be seen just above the external ear. Dark lines radiate out from the eye. Has long legs and long toes. Tail is very slender and more than twice as long as the body. Underbelly is white.

Similar Species: Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard is usually larger, has a distinct white lip, is almost always greyish rather than tan, and has males that turn blue during the breeding season.
Long-tailed Grass Lizard is wider than it is high, has smooth scales, lacks the dorsal crest, and has green coloration on the sides of its body.

Habitat: Naturally found in open forest and shrubland, but has adapted tremendously well to urban environments and can be found in agricultural areas, parks, empty lots, gardens, and even decorative shrubs in front of businesses. Usually seen off the ground in low vegetation.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control insect populations. Will occasionally eat small lizards, baby rodents, or seeds. Provides food for snakes and birds.

Danger to humans: Will often bite when handled but rarely is strong enough to even draw blood.

Conservation status and threats: Is a widespread and common species that has adapted well to humans and has no known conservation threats. It has been introduced to Singapore, where it is considered an invasive species that threatens local lizard populations.

Interesting facts: The general public often considers reptiles and amphibians to be more “mysterious” than other animals, and this can be reflected in their common names. The Oriental Garden Lizard is referred to as the “Bloodsucker” in many areas, a name that stirs up unnecessary fears. Obviously, the Oriental Garden Lizard is an insect-eater and does not suck blood from anything, especially not humans. It is thought that the name “Bloodsucker” may have originated from the red head and throat that male garden lizards often display during the breeding season. In talking to people about snakes, lizards, turtles, frogs, and caecilians you can come across many other inaccurate common names that have developed alongside urban legends involving the animals.

The Oriental Garden Lizard is also known as the “Changeable Lizard”, due to its wide variation in coloration and ability to change colors significantly during the breeding season.

During breeding season, the male Oriental Garden Lizard will approach the female while extending its “gular” (throat sac), raise the front of its body as high as possible while nodding its head, and open and close its mouth repeatedly. Males may also demonstrate this aggressive behavior when approached by people during the breeding season.

References:
Ecology Asia: Changeable Lizard
Wikipedia: Oriental Garden Lizard
Hong Kong University: Calotes versicolor
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia
The Lizards of Thailand

 
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Posted by on September 20, 2011 in Agamas, Lizards

 

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Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard

Calotes mystaceus

Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard Calotes mystaceus

Male Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard basking in Lumpani

Male Blue Crested Lizard Calotes mystaceus in breeding coloration

Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard on fence in Chatuchak, showing breeding colors

Male IndoChinese Forest Lizard Calotes mystaceus breeding colors

Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard in breeding colors in Sathon

Blue-crested Lizard Calotes mystaceus breeding colors

Close-up of Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard

IndoChinese Forest Lizard Calotes mystaceus

Female Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard on Ko Samet

IndoChinese Tree Agama Calotes mystaceus reddish spots

Male Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard in Ratchaburi Province, showing reddish body spots

female Blue Crested Lizard Calotes mystaceus on tree

Female Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard on tree in Chatuchak

Blue Crested Lizard Calotes mystaceus on ground

Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard found on ground during driving rainstorm

Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard Calotes mystaceus head shot

Head shot of Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard

IndoChinese Forest Lizard Calotes mystaceus juvenile

Juvenile Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard on tree in Sathon

English name: Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard (aka “Blue-crested Lizard” or “IndoChinese Tree Agama”)
Scientific name: Calotes mystaceus
Thai name: Ging-ga Hua Si Fa or Ging-ga Suan

Description: To 42 cm long. Snout to base of tail is up to 14 cm. Body is robust and higher than it is wide. Has rough body scales and a back crest that runs from near the back of its head down to the middle of its back. Males have a much more prominent crest than females. Background color is grey to olive with a series of 3-5 reddish spots often running down the side. Head is large. Small spines can be seen just above the outer ear. The upper lip is white. During breeding season the forebody of both males and females will turn a light electric blue.

Similar Species: Oriental Garden Lizards are smaller, are typically (though not always) tan rather than olive or grey, and lack the white lip coloration. Their males turn red and the females turn yellow, rather than blue, during the breeding season.

Habitat: Naturally found in forest, but appears to be able to adapt to encroachment by humans and can be found in treed neighborhoods and city parks. Is almost always found on tree trunks and branches well above the ground.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control insect populations. Provides a food source for diurnal snakes and birds of prey.

Danger to humans: The Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard can give a painful bite if handled, but is not dangerous.

Conservation status and threats: No known conservation issues.

Interesting facts: The blue coloration isn’t the only extravagant aspect of mating for the Indo-Chinese Forest Lizard. During breeding season the male lizard will approach a female face-to-face with its back arched and throat puffed out. It makes strong bowing motions and noddings of the head which appear almost comical. Eventually the female responds with the same posture and jerky bowings and noddings, and breeding commences.

References:
Wikipedia: Calotes mystaceus
Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
The Lizards of Thailand
A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia

 
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Posted by on September 20, 2011 in Agamas, Lizards

 

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Long-tailed Grass Lizard

Takydromus sexlineatus

Long-tailed Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus

Long-tailed Grass Lizard found in grass in Khao Yai

Long-tailed Grass Lacerta Takydromus sexlineatus

Close-up of Long-tailed Grass Lizard showing green flank

Long-tailed Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus

Dorsal view of Long-tailed Grass Lizard

Asian Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus head shot

Head shot of Long-tailed Grass Lizard

Six-lined Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus

Long-tailed Grass Lizard in Laos (photo courtesy of Thomas Calame)

Long-tailed Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus

Long-tailed Grass Lizard caught in Vietnam (photo courtesy of Alex Krohn)

Oriental Long-tailed Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus head shot

Head shot of Long-tailed Grass Lizard (photo courtesy of Alex Krohn)

Striped Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus

Long-tailed Grass Lizard (photo courtesy of http://www.Hippocampus-Bildarchiv.de)

Long-tailed Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus

Long-tailed Grass Lizard (photo courtesy of http://www.Hippocampus-Bildarchiv.de)

Striped Grass Lizard Takydromus sexlineatus

Long-tailed Grass Lizard (photo courtesy of http://www.Hippocampus-Bildarchiv.de)

English name: Long-tailed Grass Lizard (aka “Asian Grass Lizard”)
Scientific name: Takydromus sexlineatus
Thai name: Ging-ga-noi Hang Yao or Ngu Ka

Description: To 36 cm long. Snout to base of tail is up to 8 cm. A small slender lizard with an extraordinarily long tail. Body is brown with cream line on each side. Sides are darker than the top of body and have scattered cream speckles. Front lower part of body is usually greenish, fading towards light brown by the back legs. Head is distinct but narrow and has the same color pattern as the body. The original tail can be incredibly long, more than three times as long as the body, and is light brown. Underbelly is pale.

Similar Species: Oriental Garden Lizard has a body that is higher than it is wide, very rough scales, often has a dorsal crest, and lacks the green coloration on the sides.

Habitat: This lizard normally lives in grasslands, but can sometimes also be found in forest clearings, forest edges, shrubland, and agricultural land. Usually found amongst tall grass, which it often climbs.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control insect populations. Provides food for snakes and birds.

Danger to humans: Though it may attempt to bite when handled, this lizard is far too small to be dangerous to humans.

Conservation status and threats: Is a widespread species that can tolerate some human modifications of its environment. Though it is collected for the pet trade and as a food source for captive Chinese birds, the impacts on its populations are thought to be minimal. No known conservation issues.

Interesting facts: The long tail of the Long-tailed Grass Lizard is an adaptation to its grassland habitat. Being able to climb to the tops of grass stalks is an advantage in the grasslands because it allows a lizard to reach the full strength of the sun to bask, as well as putting it out of the reach of some predators and putting more insects within its reach. A long slender tail gives the Long-tailed Grass Lizard more points of contact as it climbs though the grass stalks without significantly adding to its weight, thereby improving its support and balance amongst these narrow, lightweight stalks. The skinks that share its grassland habitat do not have the same lightweight body and extremely long tail, and thus are restricted to finding sunlight in clearings and hunting insects on the ground. The long tail also distributes the lizard’s weight more effectively when it jumps from grass stalk to grass stalk, thereby enabling it to quickly and efficiently move through the grass and flee from predators.

I know of no records of Long-tailed Grass Lizards in the Bangkok area. However, they are found in adjacent parts of Thailand and it is possible that they could be found in Bangkok in the right habitat.

References:
Hong Kong University: Takydromus sexlineatus ocellatus
IUCN Red List: Takydromus sexlineatus
Wikipedia: Takydromus sexlineatus
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
Michael Cota, personal communication.
A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia
Hong Kong Amphibians and Reptiles (2nd Edition)
The Lizards of Thailand
Simon and Schuster’s Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of the World

 
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Posted by on September 20, 2011 in Lacertas, Lizards

 

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Short-limbed Supple Skink

Lygosoma quadrupes

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes

Short-limbed Supple Skink found under log in Chatuchak

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes

Short-limbed Supple Skink from above

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes foot

Reduced foot and toes of Short-limbed Supple Skink

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes

Short-limbed Supple Skink found under rock in Lumpani

short-limbed supple skink Lygosoma quadrupes limpani

Short-limbed Supple Skink found in Lumpani (photo courtesy of Mourits Horst Lovholt)

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes light phase

A lighter phase Short-limbed Supple Skink found under log in Lumpani

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes underbelly

Underbelly of Short-limbed Supple Skink

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes

Short-limbed Supple Skink with distinct lines found under branch in Chatuchak

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes top of head

Top of head of Short-limbed Supple Skink

Short-limbed Supple Skink Lygosoma quadrupes

Head shot of Short-limbed Supple Skink

English name: Short-limbed Supple Skink (aka “Linneaus’ Writhing Skink”)
Scientific name: Lygosoma quadrupes
Thai name: Ching-laen-reao Ka Lek or Mea Ngu

Description: To 20 cm long. Snout to base of tail is up to 9.6 cm. An extremely elongated skink with very small legs. Color varies from grey to yellow-brown to bronze, with very thin dark lines running down the body. Head is small and slender. Tail is as thick as the body and about the same length. Legs and toes are so small they can often be hard to see and the skink will first appear to be a snake. Underside is lighter than rest of body and can have a pinkish tint.

Similar Species: Bowring’s Supple Skink is not as slender, has more distinct limbs, and usually has much more coloration.

Habitat: Naturally found in forests, but has adapted to agricultural land, city parks and empty lots. Usually found under rotten logs or in moist leaf litter and soil.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control insect populations, especially termites. Provides food for snakes and larger lizards.

Danger to humans: This lizard is far too small to bite humans and poses no danger to anyone.

Conservation status and threats: Is a widespread and common species that has no known conservation threats.

Interesting facts: The Short-limbed Supple Skink represents an extreme in leg evolution. The very small legs allow the skink to maneuver through dirt and rotting vegetation without its legs getting in the way. When trying to escape from predators, the skink will fold its legs against its body and wiggle like a snake.

References:
Biodiversity Research & Education Outreach: Lygosoma quadrupes
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia

 
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Posted by on September 18, 2011 in Lizards, Skinks

 

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