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Category Archives: Frogs

True Frogs found outside of Bangkok

Several other True Frog species can be found in Thailand outside of Bangkok. They include:

Sapgreen Stream Frog
Sapgreen Stream Frog Hylarana nigrovittata

Gyldenstolpe’s Frog
Gyldenstolpe's Frog Limnonectes gyldenstolpei

Limborg’s Frog
Limborg's Frog Limnonectus limborgi

Taylor’s Stream Frog
Taylor's Steam Frog Limnonectes taylori

Northern Cascade Frog
Northern Cascade Frog Amolops marmoratus

 
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Posted by on June 27, 2013 in Frogs, True Frogs

 

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Microhylids found outside of Bangkok

Several other Microhylid species can be found in Thailand outside of Bangkok. They include:

Berdmore’s Narrowmouth Frog
Berdmore's Narrowmouth Frog Microhyla berdmorei

Painted Narrowmouth Frog
Painted Narrowmouth Frog Microhyla pulchra

 
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Posted by on June 24, 2013 in Microhylids

 

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Treefrogs outside of Bangkok

Several other Gecko species can be found in Thailand outside of Bangkok. They include:

Northern Treefrog
Northern Treefrog Polypedates mutus

 
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Posted by on June 21, 2013 in Frogs, Treefrogs

 

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Common Indian Toad

Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Common Indian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Common Indian Toad found on grass in Lumpani

Asian Toad Bufo melanostictus

Common Indian Toad found in trash in Phra Khanong

Common Indian Toad Bufo melanostictus

Common Indian Toad crossing road during evening in Chatuchak

Black-spined Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Common Indian Toad found under cover on Ko Samet

Southeast Asian Toad Bufo melanostictus

Common Indian Toad found under cover in riverplain in Laos

Common Indian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Common Indian Toad found near riverbank in Laos

Common Indian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Common Indian Toad calling near overflow ponds in Laos

Black-spined Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Common Indian Toad in decorative pond in Phra Khanong

Common Indian Toad Bufo melanostictus

Toadlet of Common Indian Toad in decorative pond in Phra Khanong

Common Indian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus juvenile

Juvenile Common Indian Toad found in low vegetation in Chiang Mai Province

English name: Common Indian Toad (aka “Black-spined Toad”)
Scientific name: Duttaphrynus melanostictus (formerly known as Bufo melanostictus)
Thai name: Kang-kok ban, Khi kang-kak

Description: Up to 15cm long. This large frog is the only toad species found in Bangkok. Heavy body appears obese and is covered with the characteristic “warts” of a toad. Black marks on the end of these “warts” give the toad the alternative name “Black-spined Toad”. Color can vary from gray to brown to yellow, sometimes with reddish markings. Head has very large parotid glands behind the eyes and distinct black ridges connecting the eyes to the nose and glands. Legs are relatively short and feet are only half-webbed. Underside is white, sometimes with dark blotching.

Tadpoles grow to 2.7cm. They are black and have small oval-shaped bodies.

Call: A low trill that has been described as “curr curr curr”.

Similar Species: In Bangkok, only the Common Indian Toad has its distinct head ridges, parotid glands, and skin “warts”

Chinese Edible Frog, the only species that rivals the Common Indian Toad for size, has longer legs, a longer, narrower head, raised ridges on the skin rather than warts, and lacks the head ridges and parotid glands.

Habitat: Typically found in disturbed areas, such as forest clearings and edges, river banks, rice paddies, parks, empty lots, and backyards. Will often be seen walking down Bangkok streets in the rain, even entering homes. Occasionally found in deeper forest. Breeds in standing water such as slow-moving rivers, ponds, ditches, and rain puddles.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control insect, earthworm, spider, and scorpion populations. Provides food for large birds, snakes, and monitors.

Danger to humans: Poison in its glands may lead to an ill feeling in humans if ingested.

Conservation status and threats: The Common Indian Toad is listed as a species of “least concern”, due to its high populations, broad range, and ability to utilize many human-disturbed habitats. It is possible that scientists will split this species up into several distinct species with smaller ranges in the future. The Common Indian Toad has been introduced to New Guinea and other islands, where it may pose an ecological threat.

Interesting facts: The huge parotid glands of a toad contain poison that is used to deter predators. The poison is released when the toad is harassed or bitten, and can be dangerous to small dogs who attempt to capture a toad. While it is only harmful if ingested and has a minor effect on humans, it is recommended that you wash your hands after handling any toad.

References:
The IUCN Red List: Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Wildlife of Pakistan: Bufo melanostictus
Ecology Asia: Asian Toad
Wikipedia: Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
Hong Kong Amphibians and Reptiles (2nd Edition)
Amphibian Fauna of Sri Lanka

 
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Posted by on April 15, 2012 in Frogs, True Toads

 

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Round-tongued Floating Frog

Occidozyga martensii

Round-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga martensii

Round-tongued Floating Frog found in flooded empty lot in Bang Kapi

Round-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga martensii

Round-tongued Floating Frog from same lot in Bang Kapi, without dorsal stripe

Round-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga martensii

A light Round-tongued Floating Frog found in rain puddle in Suan Luang

Round-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga martensii

Round-tongued Floating Frog found in marsh in Chiang Mai Province

Round-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga martensii

Round-tongued Floating Frog found in flooded field in Chatuchak. Note lack of upturned eyes.

Round-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga martensii

Round-tongued Floating Frog jumping to escape

Round-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga martensii calling

Round-tongued Floating Frog calling from rain puddle at construction site in Suan Luang

English name: Round-tongued Floating Frog (aka “Marten’s Floating Frog”, “Martens’ Oriental Frog”)
Scientific name: Occidozyga martensii (sometimes referred to as Phrynoglossus martensii)
Thai name: Kiat sai, Kiat lang poom

Description: To 3.3cm long. A short, thick frog with a broad head. Body is olive-grey to brown, sometimes with an reddish or orange line down the back. Small bumps are widely separated across the skin. Head is short and rounded. Tongue is round, though that is difficult to discern in the field. Underside is paler than rest of body.

Tadpoles are small and usually bury in the mud.

Call: High-pitched peeps or squeaks.

Similar Species: Green Puddle Frog has more conspicuous eyes that are set higher on the head, fewer rough bumps, and sometimes has a green dorsal stripe.

Habitat: Found in rain puddles, ponds, marshes, and damp areas near larger water bodies. Naturally occurs in forest and wetland, but is often found in rice paddies, empty lots, and other areas heavily modified by humans. Is not found in the level lowland plains where Green Puddle Frogs dominate.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control insect populations. Provides food for birds, snakes, lizards, larger frogs, and fish.

Danger to humans: No danger to humans.

Conservation status and threats: The IUCN Red List lists the Round-tongued Floating Frog as “Least Concern” due to its large populations and its ability to tolerate a range of habitats, including heavily modified ones.

Interesting facts: Due to its small size, high-pitched calls, and propensity for calling from within water bodies, I heard this frog species several times before I visually located it. During one of my first sightings, I was attempting to catch the frog when I was approached by a Thai security guard who asked what I was doing. When I told him, he not only allowed me to proceed, but helped me catch the frog and then pose it for pictures!

References:
The IUCN Red List: Round-tongued Floating Frog
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
A Field Guide to the Amphibians of Cambodia

 
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Posted by on April 7, 2012 in Frogs, True Frogs

 

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Green Puddle Frog

Occidozyga lima

Green Puddle Frog Occidozyga lima

Green Puddle Frog found in Hong Kong (photo courtesy of Wang Lijun)

Green Puddle Frog Occidozyga lima

Green Puddle Frog (photo courtesy of http://www.Hippocampus-Bildarchiv.de)

Pointed-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga lima

Green Puddle Frog - note upturned eyes (photo courtesy of Twan Leenders)

Pointed-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga lima

Green Puddle Frog from Laos (photo courtesy of Thomas Calame)

Pointed-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga lima

Green Puddle Frog floating in Cambodian pond (photo courtesy of Thomas Brown)

Green Puddle Frog Occidozyga lima floating

Green Puddle Frog floating (photo courtesy of Twan Leenders)

Green Puddle Frog Occidozyga lima calling

Green Puddle Frog calling from wetland in Laos (photo courtesy of Thomas Calame)

Pointed-tongued Floating Frog Occidozyga lima mating

Green Puddle Frogs mating in puddle in Vietnam (photo courtesy of Jodi Rowley)

English name: Green Puddle Frog (aka “Pointed-tongued Floating Frog”, “Rough-skinned Floating Frog”)
Scientific name: Occidozyga lima
Thai name: Kiat chaa-na

Description: To 4cm long. A short, thick frog with a broad head. Body is grey, olive-brown, or olive-green, sometimes with an irregular yellow or bright green stripe down the back. Small bumps cover the skin, giving it a rough texture. Head is short but pointed, with notable bulbous eyes that are set high on the head. Tongue is pointed, though that is difficult to discern in the field. Underside is pale.

Tadpoles are small with pointed snouts.

Call: Two short, high-pitched peeps or squeaks.

Similar Species: Round-tongued Floating Frog has less conspicuous eyes that are set lower on the head, more widely-spaced skin bumps, and never has a green dorsal stripe.

Habitat: Found in stagnant lowland water bodies with dense vegetation, including ponds, marshes, rice paddies, and slow-flowing streams in grasslands, forests, and wetlands. Is almost never found away from water.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control insect populations. Provides food for birds, snakes, lizards, larger frogs, and fish.

Danger to humans: No danger to humans.

Conservation status and threats: The IUCN Red List lists the Green Puddle Frog as “Least Concern” due to its ability to tolerate a range of habitats and it large populations. I have yet to find this species in Bangkok.

Interesting facts: The bulbous eyes of the Green Puddle Frog allow it to float in the water with only its eyes and nostrils breaking the surface. It prefers areas with dense vegetation, where it can watch for both prey and predators without being seen. When it does observe a threat, it will dive down and bury itself in the mud or in underwater plants.

References:
The IUCN Red List: Occidozyga lima
Ecology Asia: Occidozyga lima
True Frogs: Ranidae – Pointed-tongue Floating Frog (Occidozyga lima): Species Accounts
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
A Field Guide to the Amphibians of Cambodia
Hong Kong Amphibians and Reptiles (2nd Edition)

 
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Posted by on April 7, 2012 in Frogs, True Frogs

 

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Three-striped Grass Frog

Hylarana macrodactyla

Three-striped Grass Frog Hylarana macrodactyla

Three-striped Grass Frog found in field in Khao Yai

Three-striped Grass Frog Rana macrodactyla

Three-striped Grass Frog from above, showing third stripe down middle of back.

Three-striped Grass Frog Hylarana macrodactyla

Three-striped Grass Frog from front

Three-striped Grass Frog Hylarana macrodactyla

Three-striped Grass Frog in Hong Kong (photo courtesy of Thomas Brown)

Long-toed Slender Frog Hylarana macrodactyla

Three-striped Grass Frog from Laos (photo courtesy of Thomas Calame)

Three-striped Grass Frog Hylarana macrodactyla

Front view of Three-striped Grass Frog (photo courtesy of Thomas Calame)

Three-striped Grass Frog Hylarana macrodactyla

Three-striped Grass Frog found in Hong Kong (photo courtesy of Wang Lijun)

English name: Three-striped Grass Frog (aka “Long-toed Frog”)
Scientific name: Hylarana macrodactyla (formerly known as Rana macrodactyla)
Thai name: Kob Lang keet

Description: To 5cm long. A small, slender frog with smooth skin and three gold stripes on the back. Body is green or brown. Dark spots can be found between the stripes. Head is long and narrow. Legs are long and especially slender. Underside is white.

Tadpoles are small and brown.

Call: A light chirp.

Similar Species: Green Paddy Frog is very similar in appearance, but is larger, slightly bulkier, and lacks the strips in the middle of the back.
Asian Grass Frog has ridges on the skin and lacks stripes on the sides.

Habitat: Found in lowland lakes, marshes, floodplains, rice paddies, and open grassy areas in forest. Appears to favor flooded fields and marshes with vegetation, rather than open water.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control the populations of insects and spiders. Provides food for birds, snakes, large lizards, and fish.

Danger to humans: No danger to humans.

Conservation status and threats: The IUCN Red List lists the Three-striped Grass Frog as “Least Concern” due to its ability to tolerate a range of habitats and it large populations. However, it appears to have a scattered distribution.

Interesting facts: The scattered distribution of the Three-striped Grass Frog may be due to more specific habitat requirements than is currently known. Further study is important so that vital habitat can be preserved from draining and development. I have yet to find this species in the vicinity of Bangkok, which may only be the result of having not yet checked the correct habitat.

References:
The IUCN Red List: Hylarana macrodactyla
Wikipedia: Hylarana macrodactyla
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
A Field Guide to the Amphibians of Cambodia
Hong Kong Amphibians and Reptiles (2nd Edition)

 
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Posted by on March 29, 2012 in Frogs, True Frogs

 

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Green Paddy Frog

Hylarana erythraea

Green Paddy Frog Hylarana erythraea

Green Paddy Frog found near canal at night in Chatuchak

Green Paddy Frog Hylarana erythraea

Another Green Paddy Frog found near canal at night in Chatuchak

Common Green Frog Rana erythraea

Green Paddy Frog found in leaf litter in Bang Kapi

Common Greenback Frog Rana erythraea

Top view of Green Paddy Frog

Common Green Frog Hylarana erythraea

Green Paddy Frog found in flooded field at night in Prawet

Green Paddy Frog Hylarana erythraea

Green Paddy Frog found near fish ponds at night in Phayao Province

Common Greenback Frog Hylarana erythraea

Juvenile Green Paddy Frog found in flooded lot at night in Bang Kapi

English name: Green Paddy Frog (aka “Common Green Frog”, “Common Greenback”)
Scientific name: Hylarana erythraea, (formerly known as Rana erythraea)
Thai name: Kob bua, Kiat chik

Description: To 8cm long. A medium-sized frog with smooth skin. Body is green, brown, or both, with a narrow cream-to-yellow stripe extending from behind each eye to the rear legs and a white stripe lower down along the sides. Upper stripe can sometimes have black edges. Head is long and narrow. Legs are especially long, with long half-webbed toes. Underside is white.

Tadpoles are up to 5cm long. They have oval bodies and deep tails that taper to a tip. Their bodies and tails are green or brown with dark speckling, and the tails sometimes have a cream stripe.

Call: Squeaky warbles or “pips”.

Similar Species: Three-striped Grass Frog is similar, but is more slender and has a stripe down the middle of the back.
Asian Grass Frog has ridges on the skin, lacks stripes on the sides, and often has a stripe down the middle of the back.

Habitat: Lives in and near lakes, rivers, marshes, and especially disturbed habitats such as city ponds, irrigation ditches, and rice paddies. Usually found within a few jumps of the water.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control the populations of insects and millipedes. Provides food for birds, snakes, monitors, and fish.

Danger to humans: No danger to humans.

Conservation status and threats: The IUCN Red List lists the Green Paddy Frog as “Least Concern” due to its ability to tolerate a range of habitats and it large populations. Some populations have been affected by chemical polution. The Green Paddy Frog has been introduced to Indonesia and the Philippines.

Interesting facts: The Green Paddy Frog is the best jumper among Bangkok frogs. It is wary of humans, and when disturbed on land will often take several jumps of a meter or more in order to seek refuge under vegetation or in the water.

References:
The IUCN Red List: Hylarana erythraea
Forest Department Sarawak: Green Paddy Frog
Frogs of Borneo: Green Paddy Frog
Ecology Asia: Common Greenback
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
A Field Guide to the Amphibians of Cambodia
Travellers’ Wildlife Guides: Thailand

 
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Posted by on March 29, 2012 in Frogs, True Frogs

 

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Chinese Edible Frog

Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Chinese Edible Frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Chinese Edible Frog found near temple lake in Sukhothai Province

Taiwanese Frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Chinese Edible Frog found on edge of decorative pond in Suan Luang

Chinese Edible Frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Pale Chinese Edible Frog found in lake in Payao Province (photo courtesy of Philip Gregory)

Rugulose Bullfrog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Chinese Edible Frog in Cambodia (photo courtesy of Koulang Chey)

Chinese Bullfrog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Chinese Edible Frog on edge of artificial pond in Chonburi Province

Taiwanese Frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Chinese Edible Frog with injured eye from fishpond in Chiang Mai Province

Chinese Bullfrog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Chinese Edible Frogs in park pond in Klong Toei

Chinese Edible Frog American Bullfrog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus Lithobates catesbeianus

Hybrid Chinese Edible Frog/American Bullfrog found in pond in Chiang Mai Province

Chinese Edible Frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Chinese Edible Frogs for sale in Oh Nut market

Taiwanese Frog Rana rugulosus

Frog in market showing skin damage due to captivity.

English name: Chinese Edible Frog (aka “Chinese Bullfrog”, “Taiwanese Frog”)
Scientific name: Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (formerly known as Rana rugulosa)
Thai name: Kob Na, Kob nu

Description: To 16cm long. The largest frog in the Bangkok area, rivaled only by the Common Indian Toad. Heavy-bodied with distinct ridges in the dorsal skin. Body is olive-brown or gray. Legs are powerful, and feet are fully webbed. Underside is cream, sometimes with dark spotting.

Tadpoles are large, easily growing over 5cm. They are brown in color.

Call: A loud call that has been described as “auk auk”.

Similar Species: Few Bangkok frogs have the characteristic ridges of the Chinese Edible Frog.
Asian Grass Frog also has long raised bumps, but is smaller, more slender, and often has a dorsal stripe.
Common Indian Toad has shorter legs, a blunter and broader head, and has the characteristic “warts” of a toad rather than raised ridges.

Habitat: Found in still water bodies such as lakes, manmade ponds, ditches, rice paddies, and marshes. In Thailand I have found them in decorative fishponds, park ponds, and temple lakes. Almost always seen in or on the edge of water.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control the populations of insects, smaller frogs, and small rodents. The tadpoles feed on smaller tadpoles of other species. Provides food for large birds, snakes, and monitors.

Danger to humans: No danger to humans.

Conservation status and threats: The Chinese Edible Frog is a Class II protected species in China and Taiwan, The IUCN Red List lists it as “Least Concern” due to their wide distribution and tolerance of a range of habitats. Though they are often collected for food, their populations appear to be able to handle the current level of exploitation. Personally, in Thailand I have only found them in manmade water bodies. The Chinese Edible Frog has been introduced to Malaysia and the Philippines.

Interesting facts: As their name should suggest, Chinese Edible Frogs are the most commonly eaten frog in Thailand. Containers of the frog for sale can be found in most outdoor Bangkok markets, and their presence in city ponds and temple lakes is likely due to the release of market-bought frogs.

References:
The IUCN Red List: Hoplobatrachus rugulosus
Observations on Geographical Variation in the Asian frog, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
Hong Kong Amphibians and Reptiles (2nd Edition)
A Field Guide to the Amphibians of Cambodia
Travellers’ Wildlife Guides: Thailand

 
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Posted by on March 29, 2012 in Frogs, True Frogs

 

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Asian Grass Frog

Fejervarya limnocharis

Asian Grass Frog Fejervarya limnocharis

Asian Grass Frog found near pond in Laos

Cricket Frog Fejervarya limnocharis

Another Asian Grass Frog found in Laos

Asian Grass Frog Rana limnocharis

Asian Grass Frog found at night on Ko Samet

Paddy Frog Fejervarya limnocharis

Asian Grass Frog found in forest in Khao Yai

Ricefield Frog Fejervarya limnocharis

Sub-adult Asian Grass Frog found at edge of rain puddles in Suan Luang

Asian Grass Frog Fejervarya limnocharis juvenile

Juvenile Asian Grass Frog found on trail in Khao Yai

Cricket Frog Fejervarya limnocharis juvenile

Metamorph Cricket Frog found at edge of rain puddles in Suan Luang

Paddy Frog Fejervarya limnocharis eating

Asian Grass Frog eating earthworm in Chatuchak

Cricket Frog Fejervarya limnocharis calling

Asian Grass Frog calling from marsh in Bang Kapi

Asian Grass Frog Fejervarya limnocharis mating

Asian Grass Frogs mating in rain puddle in Bang Kapi

English name: Asian Grass Frog (aka “Cricket Frog”, “Ricefield Frog”, “Paddy Frog”)
Scientific name: Fejervarya limnocharis, (formerly known as Rana limnocharis)
Thai name: Kob nong, Kiat e-mo, Kiat bak-m

Description: Up to 6cm long. A medium-sized frog with a long narrow snout and raised bump on its back. Broken-up skin ridges are seen in lines across the entire top of the body. Body is brown or gray with a yellow, tan, or green stripe down the middle that may be wide, narrow, or completely absent. Often has dark brown or black markings as well, especially on the lips. Underside is white.

Tadpoles can be up to 4cm long. They are oval-shaped with a tail twice as long as the body. Body is brown or gray on top and silver on the bottom.

Call: A loud grating chirp that is reminiscent of a cricket.

Similar Species: Green Paddy Frog has smooth skin and light stripes on the sides.
Three-striped Grass Frog has smooth skin, is more slender, and has three stripes.
Chinese Edible Frog, which does have long raised bumps as well, is larger, much heavier, and never has a dorsal stripe.
Round-tongued Floating Frog is “rounder” with shorter legs and lacks the skin ridges.

Habitat: Can be found in almost any wet habitat, including rivers, lakes, ponds, canals, marshes, rice fields, ditches, and puddles in empty lots. Is more common in open areas and human-disturbed habitats than in undisturbed forest.

Contribution to the ecosystem: Helps control insect and millipede populations. Provides food for birds, snakes, lizards, larger frogs, and fish.

Danger to humans: No danger to humans.

Conservation status and threats: They have a wide distribution, can live in almost any habitat, and are very common, so there are no current threats to their conservation status.

Interesting facts: As with many widespread Asian herps, the Asian Grass Frog may actually be several different species that look similar to each other, but are genetically different and do not interbreed. It will take much more study (and especially genetic testing) to determine whether Asian Grass Frogs are a single species or several different species, but it is likely that scientists will find the Asian Grass Frogs from India, Thailand, China, and Japan to each be their own unique species.

References:
Ecology Asia: Field Frog
Frogs of Borneo: Fejervarya limnocharis
AmphibiaWeb: Fejervarya limnocharis
Wikipedia: Fejervarya limnocharis
The IUCN Red List: Fejervarya limnocharis
Thailand Office of Environmental Planning and Policy: A Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand
Hong Kong Amphibians and Reptiles (2nd Edition)
A Field Guide to the Amphibians of Cambodia
Simon and Schuster’s Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of the World

 
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Posted by on January 2, 2012 in Frogs, True Frogs

 

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